Thursday, January 15, 2009

“The reports of bird strikes come from eyewitnesses on the ground.”

It seems that a plane from LaGuardia Airport en route to Charlotte, N.C. crashed into the Hudson river this afternoon. I was relieved to see that (thus far) there were no fatalities or injuries reported. The reason given for the crash? Birds cut into the engine. I am slightly afraid of birds and have a flying phobia--so to see that somehow all the passengers made it through the crash is very reassuring. I can't imagine what an ordeal this must have been. However, I have to wonder, why can't an engine stand up to a few birds flying into it?

32 Comments:

Blogger Shane said...

Engines are tested against bird strikes, and are designed to survive. However, they are tested against a small number of birds. If the plane ingested the better part of a flock through both engines, that'd cause problems.

4:57 PM, January 15, 2009  
Blogger Dave Cornutt said...

How can one bird strike put a modern jet engine out? It can't. You've all seen the chicken-gun tests. However, make it a big enough flock of birds, and all bets are off -- no engine can be designed to withstand everything. And apparently this was more than a few birds, since the strike put out not one but both engines.

Decades ago, there was a bad crash at Logan (Boston) caused by hitting a flock of birds on takeoff. And that was a four-engine plane.

4:57 PM, January 15, 2009  
Blogger Sad_Dad said...

It depends on what type of engine was on the plane, from my USAF experience when birds fly into a jet engines it's called F. O. D. (Foreign Object Damage). And when this happens it cuts down dramtically on the efficiency of the engines capacity to compress the air going into it thus reducing thrust. If you get too many bird strikes it can be very bad. When you have a plane with four engines it is not felt as much as a plane with two engines.

To fix this is a pain staking process of climbing in the inlet of the engine and filing down all the rough spots on the compressor blades until smooth then applying blue dye to it so that future strikes will not be confused with the old ones. Just thought I'd toss that out there.

5:08 PM, January 15, 2009  
Blogger Nathan Mates said...

Take a desk fan, and put a weight on one of the blades. Notice how it shakes as it gets up to speed. If you've got lots of bird parts all over it, it'd shake more, especially because unlike a desk fan, it's harder for solid but sticky parts to leave an engine w/ the cowl on.

Looking at these specs, the A320 is powered by a pair of CFM56-5 engines, which run at about 5200 rpm peak, and have diameter of 67". That's 83 revolutions/second, and the outsides of the blades travel about 1450 feet/sec.

Basically, if the engine's running really unbalanced-- like the desk fan above-- then it could shake itself apart, throwing lots of heavy metal chunks at the rest of the plane at high speed. It's safer to kill the engines rather than have them disintegrate.

All engineering is a study in tradeoffs. You could make an engine so resilient that it can handle a flock of birds. Or, put 16 engines on a plane. But, it'd probably weigh 4-5x what current engines weigh. For 99.99% of the time, that's unnecessary.

I think that the FAA recently announced that 2008 was the 2nd year in a row w/ no deaths in commercial aircraft flight. To me, that's really darn good, and means that most of the engineering & maintenance standards are doing their job.

5:22 PM, January 15, 2009  
Blogger Dogwood said...

From what I've heard, it wasn't just birds but a flock of Canada Geese, which weigh up to 18 lbs and can have wingspans up to seven feet, depending on the subspecies.

Multiple big birds into each engine will cause significant damage. It is difficult to design a light, energy efficient, economical to operate engine that can withstand that kind of impact.

5:53 PM, January 15, 2009  
Blogger Dave Cornutt said...

Dogwood, I was suspecting Canada geese. They are the only birds I know of who are stupid enough to be hanging out in New York in January. For some reason, Canada geese have pretty much stopped migrating over the last 20 years or so. All other birds have more sense than that. And, as you say, Canada geese are big. We aren't talking starlings here.

6:14 PM, January 15, 2009  
Blogger Ern said...

For some reason, Canada geese have pretty much stopped migrating over the last 20 years or so.

I believe that the reason is that far more people leave food out for birds during the winter than did so forty or fifty years ago. I've read that birds migrate because of the lack of food supply where they are, not because of colder temperatures per se .

6:32 PM, January 15, 2009  
Blogger Dogwood said...

I suspect geese stay in northern Indiana because our mild winters have been leaving corn and soybean fields exposed rather than buried by several feet of snow.

We'll probably need a few consecutive years of harsh winters before their migration patterns change, or the stay behinds starve to death.

7:01 PM, January 15, 2009  
Blogger Dogwood said...

Here is an interesting article from Air & Space Magazine discussing the operational envelope of jet engines.

8:03 PM, January 15, 2009  
Blogger Cham said...

Canadian Geese are very large birds.

11:59 PM, January 15, 2009  
Blogger Locksmith Mesa said...

Sarawak bird even bigger I think.. =)

locksmith mesa

8:33 AM, January 16, 2009  
Blogger DADvocate said...

I heard on the radio it was geese. Geese are "very large birds." Around here flocks in ponds and small lakes can be 40-50 or so.

Helen, if you want to keep birds away, apparently border collies do an excellent job. A caller on the local talk radio station said he made a living using his border collies to chase geese away from golf courses, parks, apartment complexes, etc.

9:04 AM, January 16, 2009  
Blogger Cham said...

Here is an article about the of that US Airways plane. Right place right time.

9:42 AM, January 16, 2009  
Blogger SGT Ted said...

The non-migrating geese are what you get when the golf courses, parks etc allow local flocks to establish themselves. There is no place *for* then to migrate to and no reason to do so, as the weather isn't foul enough (yukyuk) to force migration. The migrating geese are from Canada(duh) on north with lesser Canada geese (cacklers) from Alaska latitudes. The North East is like Palm Springs to them.

11:33 AM, January 16, 2009  
Blogger DADvocate said...

The geese we get in northern Kentucky and southern Ohio are Canada Geese or look just like them. Yes, they migrate through but large gaggles of them will be found at local ponds, lakes, streams (uncluding the creek behind my house), golf courses, etc. for at least several weeks during migrations.

I don't know if these are geese that stay here for a period of time and continue to migrate or what. I saw a bunch sitting contently on a frozen pond just a couple of days ago. But, the geese in this area are largely absent in the summer months.

1:31 PM, January 16, 2009  
Blogger br549 said...

Having had the wind knocked out of me from getting hit in the solar plexis by a robin at about 30 mph on a motorcycle, it's not much of a wonder what a few canadian geese can do entering the inlet of a jet engine at take off speed +.

m x a = f.

One heck of a pilot, I'd say.

4:23 PM, January 16, 2009  
Blogger Cham said...

The more I read about this story the more it is uplifting. Naturally, a Canadian Goose in your jet engine is no fun, but it's really heartwarming to see a pilot who was prepared for a crash, a group of passengers who didn't panic and were appreciative, a flight crew that seemed to care, a flotilla of boat pilots that were able to quickly realize they needed to stop what they were doing and attempt a successful rescue and police officers who were able to get into their SCUBA gear and save lives.

The whole story is an upper.

5:14 PM, January 16, 2009  
Blogger Timothy Power said...

My dad was on several accident investigation teams when he was stationed in Germany in the mid-80s. A few of those were bird strikes (including one where the eagle was still carrying the rabbit it had just caught when it went through the canopy). Yes, a single bird can wreck an engine, or even bring down an airplane, if it's big enough and the plane is going fast enough--and it hits in just the right spot.

Think of it like this: suppose I were to throw a 90-mph fastball at the side of your car. That's likely to leave a good sized dent, right? Well, the baseball has a mass of 0.142 kg, and a (metric) velocity of 40 m/s. Its total kinetic energy is 1/2 m v^2, or about 114 Joules, when it hits your car.

In comparison, a Canada goose is about 9 kg (20 lbs), and the takeoff speed of an Airbus A320 is about 75 m/s (170 mph). If the Airbus hits the goose right on takeoff, it has to absorb 0.5*9*75*75, or more than 25000, Joules.

That is, the aircraft has to absorb well over 200 times the energy that the baseball dented your car with. Yes, that can knock a turbine blade clean through your engine, if it hits just right.

And that's just at takeoff speed. Jetliners cruise at roughly 500 mph, give or take. And the energy of impact varies with the square of the speed, meaning that when your speed doubles, the impact energy goes up four times. I don't know exactly how fast the Airbus was going when it hit the flock, but it was likely going moderately faster than the example I gave above.

I do have to agree with Cham's assessment: the whole story is an upper. It could have turned out really badly, but everyone from the pilots to the attendants to the passengers to the ferry pilots on the river did exactly the right thing. It's stories like these that give me hope for the future of this country.

10:51 PM, January 16, 2009  
Blogger Ken Mitchell said...

Hi, Dr. H. There is a whole generation of aircraft engines that are practically immune to bird strikes, and indeed, FOD of most types. They are called "propellers".

A radial piston engine with a four-bladed prop laughs at entire SPECIES of avian predators and comes out victorious.

Turbine engines? Not so much. A little rock, a nut or screw, a bird; any of these can shred the tiny, delicate, precisely engineered vanes of a turbine, causing a snowball effect so that in each stage of the turbine more and more FOD comes through. First it's the bird breaking off vanes from the first stage of the turbine; then it's bird guts and shards of the first-stage turbine blades causing a cascade of tiny steel turbine fragments blowing out the second, third fourth.... stages until the entire engine falls out. Oh, yes; and throws turbine parts into the wing and fuselage and fuel tanks, and....

It isn't a pretty sight.

1:53 PM, January 17, 2009  
Blogger Skyler said...

Just to be more precise, usually the damage is heaviest in the compressor section, not the turbines. Large birds can make it back to the turbines, but if the bird is that big, it's more likely that pieces of the compressor are what causes the damage that far back.

3:18 AM, January 18, 2009  
Blogger Michael Lee said...

I love you, Dr. Helen, but, man, what a chick thing to say.

10:31 PM, January 18, 2009  
Blogger xji4ek6 1j4 said...

海鮮餐廳,花蓮餐廳,美食餐廳,好吃餐廳,美食玩家,美食,海產店,花蓮海產店,花蓮美食,海鮮餐廳,花蓮餐廳,美食餐廳,好吃餐廳,美食玩家,美食,海產店,花蓮海產店,花蓮美食,海鮮餐廳,花蓮餐廳,美食餐廳,好吃餐廳,美食玩家,美食,海產店,花蓮海產店,花蓮美食,花蓮海產店,海鮮餐廳,美食餐廳,好吃餐廳,美食玩家,美食,海產店,花蓮餐廳,花蓮美食,花蓮海產店,花蓮餐廳,美食餐廳,好吃餐廳,美食玩家,美食,海產店,海鮮餐廳,花蓮美食,花蓮海產店,花蓮餐廳,美食餐廳,好吃餐廳,美食玩家,美食,海產店,海鮮餐廳,花蓮美食,花蓮海產店,花蓮餐廳,美食餐廳,好吃餐廳,美食玩家,美食,海產店,海鮮餐廳,花蓮美食,花蓮海產店,花蓮餐廳,美食餐廳,好吃餐廳,美食玩家,美食,海產店,海鮮餐廳,花蓮美食,花蓮海產店,花蓮餐廳,美食餐廳,好吃餐廳,美食玩家,美食,海產店,海鮮餐廳,花蓮美食,花蓮海產店,花蓮餐廳,美食餐廳,好吃餐廳,美食玩家,美食,海產店,海鮮餐廳,花蓮美食

11:50 AM, February 22, 2009  
Blogger emba- said...

看房子,買房子,建商自售,自售,台北新成屋,台北豪宅,新成屋,豪宅,美髮儀器,美髮,儀器,髮型,EMBA,MBA,學位,EMBA,專業認證,認證課程,博士學位,DBA,PHD,在職進修,碩士學位,推廣教育,DBA,進修課程,碩士學位,網路廣告,關鍵字廣告,關鍵字,廣告,課程介紹,學分班,文憑,牛樟芝,段木,牛樟菇,日式料理, 台北居酒屋,燒肉,結婚,婚宴場地,推車飲茶,港式點心,尾牙春酒,台北住宿,國內訂房,台北HOTEL,台北婚宴,飯店優惠,台北結婚,婚宴場地,推車飲茶,港式點心,尾牙春酒,住宿,訂房,HOTEL,飯店,造型系列,學位,牛樟芝,腦磷脂,磷脂絲胺酸,SEO,婚宴,捷運,學區,美髮,儀器,髮型,牛樟芝,腦磷脂,磷脂絲胺酸,看房子,買房子,建商自售,自售,房子,捷運,學區,台北新成屋,台北豪宅,新成屋,豪宅,學位,碩士學位,進修,在職進修, 課程,教育,學位,證照,mba,文憑,學分班,網路廣告,關鍵字廣告,關鍵字,SEO,关键词,网络广告,关键词广告,SEO,关键词,网络广告,关键词广告,SEO,台北住宿,國內訂房,台北HOTEL,台北婚宴,飯店優惠,住宿,訂房,HOTEL,飯店,婚宴,台北住宿,國內訂房,台北HOTEL,台北婚宴,飯店優惠,住宿,訂房,HOTEL,飯店,婚宴,台北住宿,國內訂房,台北HOTEL,台北婚宴,飯店優惠,住宿,訂房,HOTEL,飯店,婚宴,結婚,婚宴場地,推車飲茶,港式點心,尾牙春酒,台北結婚,婚宴場地,推車飲茶,港式點心,尾牙春酒,結婚,婚宴場地,推車飲茶,港式點心,尾牙春酒,台北結婚,婚宴場地,推車飲茶,港式點心,尾牙春酒,結婚,婚宴場地,推車飲茶,港式點心,尾牙春酒,台北結婚,婚宴場地,推車飲茶,港式點心,尾牙春酒,居酒屋,燒烤,美髮,儀器,髮型,美髮,儀器,髮型,美髮,儀器,髮型,美髮,儀器,髮型,小套房,小套房,進修,在職進修,留學,證照,MBA,EMBA,留學,MBA,EMBA,留學,進修,在職進修,牛樟芝,段木,牛樟菇,住宿,民宿,飯宿,旅遊,住宿,民宿,飯宿,旅遊,住宿,民宿,飯宿,旅遊,住宿,民宿,飯宿,旅遊,住宿,民宿,飯宿,旅遊,住宿,民宿,飯宿,旅遊,住宿,民宿,飯宿,旅遊,美容,美髮,整形,造型,美容,美髮,整形,造型,美容,美髮,整形,造型,美容,美髮,整形,造型,美容,美髮,整形,造型,美容,美髮,整形,造型,美容,美髮,整形,造型,設計,室內設計,裝潢,房地產,設計,室內設計,裝潢,房地產,設計,室內設計,裝潢,房地產,設計,室內設計,裝潢,房地產,設計,室內設計,裝潢,房地產,設計,室內設計,裝潢,房地產,設計,室內設計,裝潢,房地產,設計,室內設計,裝潢,房地產,進修,在職進修,MBA,EMBA,進修,在職進修,MBA,EMBA,進修,在職進修,MBA,EMBA,進修,在職進修,MBA,EMBA,進修,在職進修,MBA,EMBA,進修,在職進修,MBA,EMBA,進修,在職進修,MBA,EMBA,住宿,民宿,飯店,旅遊,美容,美髮,整形,造型,設計,室內設計,裝潢,房地產,進修,在職進修,MBA,EMBA

10:31 AM, March 08, 2009  
Blogger look said...

情趣用品,
性感睡衣,
免費視訊聊天,
視訊交友網,
美姬圖影,
情境坊歡愉用品,
花美姬情趣用品,
成人圖片,
臺灣情色網,
嘟嘟情人色網,
色情網站,
情境坊歡愉用品,
徵信,
徵信公司,
徵信,
外遇,
徵信,
徵信,
抓姦,
徵信,
外遇,
徵信,
徵信社,
徵信社,
抓姦,
徵信社,
徵信社,
徵信社,
,
,
整型,
視訊聊天,
視訊交友,
AV女優,
色情,
A片,
A片,
情趣用品,
情色,
A片,
色情影片,
情趣用品,
A片,
AV女優,
視訊聊天室,
聊天,
情趣用品,
情惑用品性易購,
情侶歡愉用品,
A片,
情趣,
情惑用品性易購,
辣妹視訊,
自慰套,
情侶歡愉用品,
寄情築園小遊戲,
aio交友愛情館,
美女視訊,
色情A片,
情趣用品,
徵信社,
情趣用品,
A片,
美女視訊,
色情A片,
AV女優,
A片,
辣妹視訊,
自慰套,
情侶歡愉用品,

10:41 PM, March 14, 2009  
Blogger 徵信 said...

外遇外遇外遇外遇外遇外遇外遇外遇外遇 外遇
外遇 外遇外遇 外遇 外遇
外遇 外遇 外遇
外遇


外遇 外遇
外遇
外遇 外遇外遇
外遇

外遇 外遇外遇 外遇 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 ,
外遇 外遇 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇外遇 外遇外遇 外遇 外遇

外遇 外遇

外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇劈腿劈腿劈腿劈腿劈腿劈腿劈腿劈腿喜帖囍帖卡片外遇外遇 外遇 外遇外遇 外遇
外遇 外遇 外遇 外遇剖析 外遇調查 外遇案例 外遇諮詢 偷情 第三者外遇話題 外遇發洩 感情挽回 徵信社 外遇心態 外遇 通姦 通姦罪 外遇徵信社徵信社外遇 外遇 抓姦徵信協會徵信公司 包二奶 徵信社 徵信 徵信社 徵信社 徵信社 徵信社 徵信 徵信 婚姻 婚前徵信 前科 個人資料 外遇 第三者 徵信社 偵探社 抓姦 偵探社 偵探社婚 偵探社 偵探社偵探家事服務家事服務家電維修家事服務家事服務家事服務家事服務家事服務持久持久持久持久持久持久持久離婚網頁設計徵信社徵信社徵信徵信社外遇離婚協議書劈腿持久持久持久持久持久劈腿剖析徵信徵信社外遇外遇外遇外遇徵信社徵信社徵信社徵信社徵信社徵信社徵信徵信社徵信徵信徵信徵信徵信徵信徵信徵信徵信徵信徵信徵信徵信徵信徵信徵信徵信徵信徵信徵信徵信徵信徵信徵信社徵信社徵信社徵信社徵信社徵信社徵信社徵信社徵信公會 徵信公會 徵信公會 徵信公會 徵信公會 徵信公會 徵信公會 徵信公會 徵信公會 徵信公會 徵信公會 徵信公會 徵信公會 徵信公會 徵信公會 徵信公會 徵信公會 徵信公會 徵信公會 徵信公會 徵信公會 徵信公會 徵信公會 徵信公會 徵信公會 徵信公會 徵信公會 徵信公會 徵信公會 徵信公會 徵信公會 徵信公會 徵信公會 徵信公會 徵信公會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信公會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信公會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 劈腿 劈腿 劈腿 劈腿 劈腿 劈腿 劈腿 劈腿 劈腿 劈腿 劈腿 劈腿 劈腿 劈腿

3:30 AM, April 22, 2009  
Blogger taly said...

会社設立不動産渋谷区 賃貸グループウェアシステム開発サーバー管理網頁設計探偵浮気調査コンタクトレンズ腰痛矯正歯科インプラント電報ショッピング枠 現金化クレジットカード 現金化
クレジットカード 現金化ジュエリーおまとめローン格安航空券国内格安航空券債務整理多重債務債務整理育毛剤育毛剤薬剤師 求人電話占いワンクリック詐欺葬儀 千葉カラーコンタクトフランチャイズフランチャイズ留学幼児教室個別指導塾経営雑誌経済雑誌初音ミク似顔絵ウェルカムボードCrazyTalkCloneDVDCloneCD名刺作成クレージートークフロアコーティング 川崎フロアコーティング治験

9:27 PM, April 25, 2009  
Blogger 9988 said...

激情網愛聊天 激情網愛 伊利討論區 亞洲情色視訊交友 亞洲成人圖片區 伊莉論壇 一夜情聊天室 浪漫月光論壇 一葉情貼圖片區 正妹牆-校園版 水都情色論壇 洪爺色情電影 波波情色貼圖 洪爺 影城 櫻桃不夜城 歐美 a片 歐美模特兒寫真 東東成人論壇 楓之谷小遊戲 曼雪兒 免費小說 星光情色討論版 本土自拍網 日本a片 搜樂論壇 新6k聊天室 日本美女寫真集 日本av女優色色網 成人影城 成人交友 成人微風論壇 成人哈啦聊天室 成人卡通影片 成人視訊交友聊天 成人電影下載 成人免費視訊聊天 成人貼圖站 成人聊天網 成人網站- 嘟嘟情人色網 情人視訊聊天室 情人影音視訊網 情人視訊高雄網 情色交友網 情色小遊戲 情色交友聊天小站 情色視訊聊天 情色電影院 情色網 情色自拍 情色貼圖區 情色 後宮電影院 後宮成人影城 微風成人區 微風成人短片區 影音Live秀 彩虹hi視訊交友網 影音視訊聊天室 巨乳辣妹寫真視訊 平水相逢遊戲區 小魔女自拍天堂 小魔女影片交流 小弟弟貼影片 小潘潘寫真圖片 小弟弟貼影片區 小魔女免費影片 小高 聊天室 小莉影像館 小高深情聊天室 寄情築園小遊戲 尋夢園聊天室 小瓢蟲情色論壇 尋夢園聊天室聯盟 女優成人情色網 女優報報 女人色色網 大奶美女視訊 天堂情色網 天下第一色站 夢幻家族聊天室 失敗論壇 土豆網 - 影片下載 嘟嘟情人色網 壞朋友論壇fliendo 嘟嘟情人色網影片 嘟嘟成年人網 哈啦聊天室 嗡嗡嗡論壇 嘟嘟 貼圖區 嘟嘟影城 咆哮小老鼠分享論壇 台灣成人貼圖 台灣美女寫真貼圖區 台灣原住民聊天室 台灣論壇 台灣kiss 台灣kiss文學區 原住民聊天室-視訊網 台灣a片王 原住民聊天室 八國成人情色網 卡通a片 免費曼雪兒小說 免費檳榔西施摸奶影片 免費情色電影分享區 免費影音視訊聊天 免費貼圖區 免費辣妹視訊聊天網 免費辣妺視訊 免費視訊美女網 免費視訊聊天室入口 免費視訊辣妹脫衣秀 免費視訊聊天 免費視訊聊天室 免費視訊成人聊天室 免費色咪咪影片網 免費線上a片 免費a片欣賞 免費av18禁影片 免費a片 偷窺大本營 yymp3 音樂網站 watchshow情色視訊聊天室 t聊天聯盟 taiwankiss文學區 sex女優王國 sex999 免費影片 sex888免費影片城 s383情色大網咖 QQ美美色網 kiss影音視訊聊天室 JP成人影城 jojo 漫畫連載 hilive tv免費電影 fhm男人幫 Hotsee 免費視訊 聊天室 friendster交友社群部落 辣妹視訊秀 豆豆聊天室 麗的免費情色遊戲 貓貓論壇 視訊ukiss聊天室 視訊交友90739 視訊交友 視訊聊天 視訊聊天交友 視訊聊天室 視訊美女34c 電話交友 色情遊戲 色色網 色美媚部落格 都會男女視訊聊天室 自拍美女聊天室 金瓶影片交流區 聊天室080 美女視訊聊天 美女交友聊天室 線上免費a片 線上a片 網路交友聊天室 絕色成人影城 百分百貼影片區 童顏巨乳美女圖片 男人幫論壇 癡漢論壇 甜心寶貝貼影區 無名 正妹牆 熊貓情色貼圖 熊貓貼圖區 BT成人論壇 av女優報報 av博物館 aio男女交友愛情館 aio交友戀愛館 aa免費看 aa的滿18歲影片 aaaa片俱樂部 a383成人影城 85cc免費影片 6k聊天館 18成人dvd 383成人論壇 4u成人論壇 18成人av影城 3a情色網 18禁小遊戲 080原住民聊天室 080聊天室 080視訊聊天室 080中部人聊天室 0401影音視訊聊天室 080 聊天室 6k 0204貼圖區 0204movie - 18成人影城 007色色網kk777視訊俱樂部正妹視訊ggoo

9:39 AM, May 05, 2009  
Blogger Talia.float said...

Bought the Tennis Racquet is important, exercise can reduce the harm, especially for the wrist injury. But the good of Tennis Racket in general in the real prices are more expensive, so a lot of websites now have cheap tennis racquettennis racquet discountcheap tennis racketdiscount Tennis Racket .

2:08 AM, May 18, 2009  
Blogger Talia.float said...

head junior tennis racketwilson tennis racquet
wilson tennis racket
head tennis racketbabolat tennis racket

2:09 AM, May 18, 2009  
Blogger 1798 said...

視訊做愛視訊美女無碼A片情色影劇kyo成人動漫tt1069同志交友網ut同志交友網微風成人論壇6k聊天室日本 avdvd 介紹免費觀賞UT視訊美女交友..........................

6:43 AM, May 20, 2009  
Blogger miyuki said...

chaussures pumaBon March¨¦ Chaussure Sports Shop:chaussures tn,Chaussure Puma Femme,Chaussure Puma Homme,Chaussure Nike Femme,Chaussure Nike homme,nike shoxChaussure Sport et plus. Livraison Rapide.Paypal

2:32 AM, May 27, 2009  
Blogger 1122 said...

聊天室交友pixnet聊天室交友pixnet聊天室交友pixnet聊天室交友pixnet聊天室交友pixnet聊天室入口聊天室入口聊天室入口聊天室入口聊天室入口聊天室13060免費聊天室13060免費聊天室13060免費聊天室13060免費聊天室13060免費聊天室ilover99聊天室ilover99聊天室ilover99聊天室ilover99聊天室ilover99一葉晴貼影片區一葉晴貼影片區一葉晴貼影片區

4:26 AM, June 08, 2009  

Post a Comment

<< Home