Wednesday, February 15, 2006

Daycare, Social Skills and Cognitive Development

A number of readers have emailed me to comment on the recent studies on the pitfalls of daycare on the development of children. One such British article points out that nurseries harm small children--Note that these daycares are run as part of a government involved program:

Steve Biddulph, whose books have sold more than 4m copies worldwide, says that instead of subsidising nurseries, which do a “second-rate” job, the government should put in place policies to enable mothers to stay at home with their babies. The advice signals a reversal of views for Biddulph, an Australian with more than 20 years’ experience as a therapist, whose previous bestsellers
include Raising Boys and Raising Girls.

In his new book Biddulph will admit he has changed his mind because of growing evidence of increased aggression, antisocial behaviour and other problems among children who have spent a large part of their infancy being cared for away from home.

He argues that such children may have problems developing close relationships later.


In another Canadian study on Quebec's Universal Childcare Program, the researchers found that the children in universal daycare were worse off on every measure when compared to other children, which included fighting more and being aggressive(Hat Tip to J W Well's blog for pointing out this study).

My instincts tell me that something is amiss in these studies--they both look at other countries with subsidized/government-involved childcare. I wonder how government involvement and the quality of caregiving play a part in the negative outcomes of these studies? What about American daycares that are private--what do those outcomes look like? I took a look at a recent study in the American Psychologist this month that summarizes findings from the National Institute of Child Health and the Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development.

Briefly, the study recruited participants from hospitals in various states and compared children who had exclusive maternal care with children who experienced at least some child care (with others or in a daycare center) on a variety of developmental outcomes. The researchers also examined child-care characteristics and included only children observed in their child-care setting. What did they find?

In the maternal vs. child-care kids, use of child care was not significantly related to cognitive outcomes at 15, 36,or 54 months or to social or peer outcomes at any age. Not surprisingly, the quality of the child care was important. Children in the study who experienced higher quality child care scored modestly higher on all cognitive measures, most ratings of social outcomes, and some peer outcomes. Now for the bad news--in comparing kids with high and low hours of child care per week--caregivers tended to report more problem behaviors and fewer social skills at 54 months when children had more hours of child care. Those with center care compared to those without center care had better cognitive and language outcomes and more positive peer interactions but lower ratings of social skills by the caregiver and more problem behaviors at 36 months.

So, what does this mean? Child-care quality (sensitive and responsive caregiving as well as cognitive and language stimulation) is important! And if you decide to use a daycare, research the place very thoroughly and make sure the caregivers are attentive to your child and talk to him or her. Pop in unexpectedly and see how the place runs when no one is really watching.

Quantity of child care--hours per week--is a predictor of social functioning as children who spent more time in child care displayed more negative behavior at 54 months. So, perhaps limiting some hours in day care centers for very young children may be a possibility if one of the parents can put in more time until the child is older. But, in this study, exclusive maternal care was not related to better or worse outcomes for children--so overall, children may not be worse off.

I am concerned with the problem behaviors displayed by some kids with full time child care experiences--the reason is that in elementary school, some may be harder to manange and the other children may try to imitate them and increase problems in the classroom. My advice would be to get to know the personality of your child. For my daughter, fewer social skills was not a problem, but if you have a child who is more aggressive, temperamental or hard to control, it might be better to restrict the number of hours in daycare. Overall, there are no easy solutions to the child care problem and each family will have to decide what is right for them until further research can clarify some of these issues.

32 Comments:

Blogger Assistant Village Idiot said...

I had seen these studies and reached similar opinions. My wife and I reworked our schedules to minimize the amount of day care for both our two older boys. If we had to do over again, I think we would try to bend even farther, to get the number of hours down (10-15hrs/wk for the first son, 15-20 for the second). But we felt they received good emotional care, and plenty of intellectual encouragement. The quality of care, the number of children, the type of environment -- these are the huge factors.

6:18 PM, February 15, 2006  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

I don't claim, nor have, any particular knowledge on the subject, but my son (an only child) spent from a little under 1 year old up to entering kindergarten in child care. A mish-mosh that included some time in "official" day care, some with his Aunt and most with a neighbor that was a stay-at-home Mom.

There was no rushing around and "dumping off" in the morning, typically I dropped him off between 9 & 10AM after we hung out at home, then my wife picked him up at about 3:30 or so.

I always thought it was good that he spent time with other kids, as opposed to being home alone all day with either one of us. Now that he's approaching 18, it seems like it worked out pretty well in retrospect.

8:45 PM, February 15, 2006  
Blogger David said...

NICHD has a huge time study on childcare (my daughter has been part of it for 15 years)

Basically the millions of dollars point out one basic fact

Good situations lead to good outcomes - if it is parents or childcare, or whatever the means is.

9:57 PM, February 15, 2006  
Blogger jw said...

Good daycare situations produce good results: That is fine. The thing is, how does one predict GOOD daycare?

The Quebec (C.D. Howe Institute) study found that there was a centering of children. Those few who had real troubles did a bit better: The majority, who wouldn't normally have troubles, did worse than would be expected.

Thus if you can send your child to the best daycare --one were troubled children will not be seen-- your child will center around good kids. If you cannot afford the best daycare, things are not so good.

So, it seems to me, that we're looking at a situation in which there are multiple types of daycare based on how many hours of troubled children your child will be exposed to.

I think there's enough to say that it is far far more than the quality of the staff: One must also look at the other kids and that is a tough thing to do.

3:47 AM, February 16, 2006  
Blogger Helen said...

JW,

I agree that the other children are important. However, everyone ususually knows the bad kids. We had one in my daughter's daycare when she was one or less. This two year old bit, hit and spit. He was put out of the daycare at the insistence of the staff and parents. Parents should keep an eye on what is going on with the other kids and talk to the owner if needed.

And you are right. Studies seem to show that two parents with jobs get better quality daycare. However, they are usually less depressed and more educated meaning they probably seek out better care.

6:15 AM, February 16, 2006  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

In the debate over daycare, one dirty little point I never see brought up is that mediocre day care may be an improvement compared to even worse parenting. We all want to believe that parents, especially mothers, are perfect angels put on earth to serve up milk and cookies with a warm smile and a hug after the flashcard session is over. Some mothers really are like this, and they are usually the one who choose to stay home, which is great. But some other mothers...not so hot. I have come to realize that the urge to nurture small children is NOT universal. Frankly, and it hurts to say this, my wife, although very intelligent and conscientious, was cold, highly impatient, and sometimes just plain mean towards our young kids. I'll bet she is not the only woman like this. It has gotten MUCH better as they have gotten older and more verbal, and in retrospect I think she was depressed during those years as well. Better that she worked to help make enough money to send our two kids to a high quality center with a low child/caregiver ratio. Our oldest kid has turned into a wonderful, kind, sweet, empathic kid. The younger one will probably be fine too, although does have a temper. I guess the point is that people should have the right to choose what's best for them, without guilt trips from naive pro-family cultural conservative types. I also think feminism has drummed out the soft/warm/nurturing/patient qualities from a lot of women, unfortunately.

8:52 AM, February 16, 2006  
Anonymous Heather said...

Oh, please, anonymous 8:52. Blaming feminism for some mothers who aren't "soft/warm/nurturing/patient" is like blaming Republicans for global warming: inaccurate and pointless. There has always been a population of women who do not have the emotional tendencies most identified as "motherly." Feminism has done much to give these women access to birth control so they don't have to be mothers against their will and do a poor job of raising unwanted children.

And if anything, feminism has enabled the soft/warm/nurturing/patient women options that allow them to have fulfilling lives in addition to their motherhood, which is likely to make them MORE able to display these gentle, positive qualities to their children.

I thank Dr. Helen for a balanced post with studies showing both positive and negative effects of daycare.

11:46 AM, February 16, 2006  
Blogger Helen said...

anonymous 8:52:

I agree that families need to make their own decisions about what is best for their child care arrangements. Some mothers or fathers (yes, some care takers are men) are depressed and this can certainly affect the kids. I do not think that it is natural for all parents to be nurturing types, but luckily some of us just work at it anyway.

Parenting in the Amer. Psych. study did show to be important--children who experienced more responsive and stimulating care from parents had higher scores on cognitive, language, social-emotional, and peer outcomes at all ages.

One of the interesting points in the American Psychologist Study was that the researchers excluded some families during the screening for the study. These families tended to be single parents, African American, and have less income--the mothers tended to have less education, more depressive symptoms, and lower parenting scores and their kids experienced fewer hours of child care and were less likely to attend child-care centers. I also wonder how the lives of these kids will be influenced by being home with a depressed mother with no money and poor parenting skills?

11:57 AM, February 16, 2006  
Blogger Silvermine said...

I don't think feminism has anything to do with it. Some women do have post-partum depression, and some kids are really more difficult than others. Sometimes bonding takes longer.

If she worked the whole time too, than she was probably completely stressed out, over-tired, and feeling half nuts.

I'm a working mom, too, and it's not even remotely easy. Sometimes after a hard days work, after being up nursing every 2 hours all night, all with post-partum depression... well, you run a little short on patience. :P It's hard to turn into a mom. It gets easier when you forget what life was like before, when you could just go out at the drop of a hat, or go to the bathroom by yourself. Or you don't spend every waking moment of your life worrying about the most precious thing in the entire world.

5:20 PM, February 16, 2006  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

When I googled "daycares", this VERY anti-daycare website was right at the top.
I just don't know what to think...

7:15 PM, February 16, 2006  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Just an fyi:

Right now, in most daycare centers, the only educational requirement for employment is a
high school diploma. There is a big push for daycare workers (home/center) to go for a Child Development Associate Credential as outlined by the Council for Professional Recognition in D.C. It's a great program because it based on a curriculum that teaches about development, literacy, program assessment, etc., and is recognized nation-wide. It also promotes women (I'm sure there might be some men in daycare, but I don't know of any :) )continuing their education - the CDA training hours can be converted into credit hours at local community colleges, thereby encouraging an Associates Degree in early childhood.

I would like to think that encouraging education among providers will improve quality.

Love this site!

mb

11:08 AM, February 17, 2006  
Blogger Kathy said...

In the debate over daycare, one dirty little point I never see brought up is that mediocre day care may be an improvement compared to even worse parenting.

Actually, I often see this argument made. In fact, I've heard parents more or less make it about themselves, as justification for why they should continue to work rather than stay home with their own children. (These were parents who didn't otherwise have to work.) No, good parenting or even parental feelings don't come naturally to everyone. I'm not a naturally nurturing person. But if you *want* to develop those feelings, skills, reactions, you can (barring, of course, mental illness or other serious psychological problems).

I don't think non-parental childcare is inherently destructive, but I do think many parents miss out on the wonderful experiences they could have with their young children because they assume that since they don't feel like a super parent, and since they know they aren't going to be perfect, that their children are better off cared for by others. It's not easy, and some days I do wonder why exactly I signed on for this (I have three under the age of 6), but even on those days there are wonderful moments. And the better I get at this, the more often those wonderful moments happen.

The one big downside I see to outside childcare is in character formation. That's a process that takes much time and attention from a caregiver. I have to get to know my children very well, and learn what their character strengths and weaknesses are, then intervene in mostly subtle ways throughout our days together to begin to encourage the strengths and eliminate the weaknesses. An outside caregiver, in most situations, is not going to have the time or interest in doing that. And if I only had my kids for 2 or 3 waking hours a day, I think it would be hard for me to do much of that.

10:04 PM, February 17, 2006  
Blogger Kathryn Judson said...

Jenni Russell recently had a commentary in the Guardian (http://www.guardian.co.uk/comment/story/0,,1696733,00.html) in which she explains how she's gone from doing indignant television reports on the lack of affordable daycare for working mothers -- to now wondering what daycare does to families. She covers a lot of points, including an angle I hadn't thought of before:

"...As they grow, children need to feel loved and understood by the adults around them, and taught how to handle their emotions. That doesn't happen in after-school clubs or playschemes, where playworkers must retain a physical and professional distance.

The consequence is that children have to make the effort of maintaining their public faces, too. They can't relax..."

I wonder?

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